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Children's Health

7 Types of learning disabilities that may affect your child

Dr. Tomi






1. Dyslexia; this affects reading and related language based processing skills, such as reading fluency, decoding comprehension, recalling sometimes spelling.


2. Dyscalculia; Difficulty in ability to understand numbers or learn maths facts, poor comprehension of maths symbols, struggles in memorizing and organizing numbers, telling time, trouble counting.


3. Dysgraphia; Affects handwriting ability, illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spelling, difficulty composing, difficulty in thinking and writing at the same time as well as general fine motor skills.




4. Auditory processing disorder( APD) ; Sound travels unimpeded\disturbed through the ear to be processed by the brain, however, subtle differences between sounds in words are unrecognized, making nonsense of orders of sounds, difficulty in knowing where sound is coming from, difficulty in blocking out background sounds.

5. Language processing disorder; is a special type of APD where there is difficulty in attaching meaning to a sound group to form words, sentences or stories.


6. Non-verbal learning disabilities (NVLD); Typically, these individuals have trouble interpreting non-verbal cues like facial expression or body language and may have poor coordination.


7. Visual perceptual/ visual motor deficit; Affects the understanding of information that a person sees, difficulty in ability to draw or copy, missing subtle differences in shapes or printed letter, poor eye-hand coordination, usually seen in dysgraphia/NVLD.



These are not considered learning disabilities but research indicates that they can make learning extremely challenging.


1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Children with this disorder have difficulty in staying focused and paying attention, difficulty in controlling behavior and hyperactivity.


2. Dyspraxia; Difficulty in muscle control which causes difficulty in movement and coordination, language and speech.


3. Executive functioning; Inefficiency in the cognitive management system of the brain that affects a variety of neuropsychological processes such as planning, organization, strategizing, paying attention and remembering details and managing time and space.


4. Memory; There are three types of memory needed for learning. They include working memory, short term and long term memory used to process both verbal and non-verbal information. Any difficulty in any or all can lead to impaired ability to store and retrieve information required to carry out tasks.

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Dr Tomi Sofela (MBChB) is a graduate of Olabisi Onabanjo University in Ogun State registered with the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria. She is on a mission to pursue fulfillment and enjoys watching movies, reading novels and organizing friends and family get-together.